Everything you should know about Bone Marrow Transplant

A bone marrow transplant is performed when a patient’s marrow is diseased and cannot function normally. Long-term infections, diseases, or cancer treatments are some reasons why a bone marrow transplant is required. Doctors often refer patients to bone marrow transplants in Mumbai due to its complications.

During this treatment, blood stem cells are transplanted into the diseased bone marrow, where they create new blood cells and support the creation of new marrow.

 When is a Bone marrow transplant required?

  •  Aplastic anemia
  •  leukemia
  •  lymphoma
  •  multiple myeloma
  •  Congenital neutropenia
  •  Sickle cell anemia
  •  thalassemia

 Types of bone marrow transplants

  Transplants are of two types depending on the source of the stem cells.

  •  Autologous
  •  Allogenic

Autologous

When cancer is treated with a high-dose, intensive chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatment, it can damage a patient’s stem cells. So doctors remove the patients’ stem cells before treatment to preserve them.

With autologous transplants, the stem cells are returned to the body after chemotherapy to restore the body’s ability to produce blood cells and fight infection. So, the patient, making the patient their donor.  

Allogenic

Allogenic transplants use stem cells from someone other than the patient, either a relative or some other donor.

 The stem cells in the most common type of allogenic transplant come from a donor whose tissue type is quite similar to the patient. A close relative, generally a sibling, is a suitable donor.

The donor stem cells have their immune system, which may aid in the killing of any cancer cells that survive after high-dose treatment. However, before settling in the bone marrow, the transplanted donor stem cells may die or be eliminated by the patient’s body. These are some complications of an allogenic transplant.

The Bone marrow transplant procedure

The procedure begins with conditioning. It usually entails a strong dose of chemotherapy for around ten days, sometimes with radiation. It varies from person to person and is determined by the overall health and the ailment being treated. Conditioning frees up space in the bone marrow for new cells to proliferate. It also temporarily weakens the immune system so that the body doesn’t fight the new cells.

Doctors specializing in bone marrow transplants in Mumbai will brief you about the surgery and recovery before the procedure begins.

Risks involved in bone marrow transplants

  • Graft-versus-host disease(GVHD), in which donor cells attack your body
  • Graft failure, in which transplanted cells do not begin creating new cells as expected
  •  bleeding in the lungs, brain, and other regions of the body
  •  cataracts
  •  damage to important organs
  •  Anemia in early menopause
  •  mucositis
  •  nausea, diarrhea, or vomiting
  •  mouth sores
  •  Hair loss
  •  Lung or breathing problems
  •  Fertility problems

 Minimizing risks during and post-surgery is critical. It is advisable to search for the best hospitals that offer bone marrow transplants in Mumbai.

Conclusion

 The engraftment will be examined regularly. It usually takes between 10 and 28 days to complete the follow-up after the initial transplant. An increase in white blood cell count indicates that the transplant is successful and the body is producing new blood cells. With bone marrow transplants Mumbai, the road to recovery is simplified with medical assistance and rehabilitation programs. A bone marrow transplant usually takes three to five months to recover. It may, however, take up to a year for a complete recovery.

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